Rebuilding Alpaca with the Hugging Face Trainer Class

Fine-tuning Llama-2-7B using the Alpaca dataset and Hugging Face Trainer

Table of Contents


In March of this year (2023), a lab at Stanford released a small project that quickly became massively influential — Alpaca. The authors used text-davinci-003 (an InstructGPT model from OpenAI) to generate a dataset with 52K examples of prompts and responses, then fine-tuned Llama-7B using those prompt and response pairs.

The result was surprisingly good — Alpaca was able to interact with users similarly to OpenAI's InstructGPT models, despite being inexpensive to train and not using a human-created training dataset. In this blog post, we'll write code to train our own model from scratch using the Alpaca dataset.

The code in this blog post is based on that in the Alpaca repo, though my hope is that it should be simpler and more intuitive. All credit should go to the original authors of the paper.


You'll need to install torch, transformers, datasets, and accelerate. wandb is great if you want to track training loss over time. And, of course, you'll need some good GPUs if you want your model to train quickly.

Start out by creating one main folder, alpaca-repro, with two subfolders: one called trainer, where your training code will go, and one called finetunes, where we'll save your fine-tuned model.

Step 1: Loading and Processing the Data

Put all of the code in this section into trainer/

We'll begin by loading the Alpaca data from the Hugging Face hub. Each question/prompt pair in the dataset needs to be converted into a single string that we can train the model on, but we actually generate one extra string: source, which we use further down to ignore labels so our model doesn't train on instructions.

from datasets import load_dataset

original_dataset = load_dataset("tatsu-lab/alpaca")["train"]

template_no_context = """Below is an instruction that describes a task. \
Write a response that appropriately completes the request.

### Instruction:

### Response:

template_context = """Below is an instruction that describes a task. \
Write a response that appropriately completes the request.

### Instruction:

### Input:

### Response:

def data_to_string(data):

instruction = data["instruction"]
context = data["input"]
response = data["output"]

template = template_context if len(context) > 0 else template_no_context
source = template.format(instruction=instruction, input=context)

return {
"source": source,
"text": source + response,

dataset =
).remove_columns(['instruction', 'input', 'output'])

Here we split the data so we can use 10% for evaluation and tests later on.

processed_dataset = dataset.train_test_split(test_size=0.1)

train_dataset = processed_dataset["train"]
eval_dataset = processed_dataset["test"]

Finally, we define a data collator to be used by our training loop. Remember that each text string is just made up of the source plus the response. So we tokenize the source string to figure out how many labels in the text string to ignore.


def data_collator(features, tokenizer):
sources = [feature["source"] for feature in features]
targets = [feature["text"] for feature in features]

source_tokens = tokenizer(

target_tokens = tokenizer(

labels = target_tokens["input_ids"].clone()

for i in range(len(labels)):
source_len = source_tokens["attention_mask"][i].sum()

labels[i, :source_len] = IGNORE_TOKEN

res = {
"input_ids": target_tokens["input_ids"],
"attention_mask": target_tokens["attention_mask"],
"labels": labels,

return res

Step 2: Writing Our Training Loop

Put all of the code in this section into trainer/

This code is fairly self-explanatory, so I've just annotated it with comments.

from transformers import LlamaForCausalLM, LlamaTokenizer, Trainer, TrainingArguments
from accelerate import Accelerator
from get_data import train_dataset, eval_dataset, data_collator

accelerator = Accelerator()

MODEL_PATH = "meta-llama/Llama-2-7b-hf" # path to Llama on Hugging Face Hub
OUTPUT_DIR = "../finetunes/alpaca-7b" # where to save the fine-tuned model

tokenizer = LlamaTokenizer.from_pretrained(MODEL_PATH, legacy=False)
tokenizer.pad_token = tokenizer.eos_token
tokenizer.padding_side = "right" # not set by default, strangely

model = LlamaForCausalLM.from_pretrained(
MODEL_PATH, device_map="auto"

training_args = TrainingArguments(
output_dir='checkpoints', # where Trainer will save model checkpoints
num_train_epochs=1, # start with a low number of epochs for testing

trainer = Trainer(
data_collator=lambda x: data_collator(x, tokenizer),



Step 3: Running Our Training Loop

Create trainer/accelerate_config.yaml, and paste in the following configuration:

compute_environment: LOCAL_MACHINE
deepspeed_config: {}
distributed_type: "NO"
downcast_bf16: "no"
machine_rank: 0
main_process_ip: null
main_process_port: null
main_training_function: main
mixed_precision: "no"
num_machines: 1
num_processes: 1
use_cpu: false

Then cd into ./trainer and run:

accelerate launch --config_file accelerate_config.yaml

Saving the model and weights might take a while, so be patient!

Step 4: Testing Our Fine-Tuned Model!

I wrote a simple script to load up our fine-tuned model and interact with it! It doesn't support conversations with context, but it's a great way to see how the model is working.

Create a new file called alpaca-repro/, then run python3

from transformers import AutoTokenizer, AutoModelForCausalLM, pipeline

template = """Below is an instruction that describes a task. \
Write a response that appropriately completes the request.

### Instruction:

### Response:

model_path = "./finetunes/alpaca-7b"

tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained(model_path, legacy=False)
tokenizer.pad_token = tokenizer.eos_token
tokenizer.padding_side = "right"

model = AutoModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained(
model_path, device_map="auto", local_files_only=True

pipe = pipeline(

def prompt_model():
prompt = input("Enter your question: ")
prompt = template.format(instruction=prompt)
answer = pipe(prompt)

while True:


I hope this article was helpful and informative! My plan is to follow it up in a few days with an explanation of how to use FSDP with the Hugging Face Trainer.

If you got mixed up along the way, here's a Gist with the final project code:

If you liked this article, don't forget to share it and follow me at @nebrelbug on Twitter.

© 2024 Ben Gubler